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Ianuarie Protosinghelul şi Mihalache Moldoveanu în două manuscrise din muzeul Mănăstirii Cernica

Januarius „the Protosyncellos” and Mihalache Moldoveanu: two manuscripts held by the museum of Cernica Monastery

Autor(i): Pr. Alexandru DUMITRESCU

In a chronological presentation of the Romanian translations of church chants, published in 1846, Anton Pann mentions some notable names. Among them he in-cludes Mihalache Moldoveanu, the author of a 1767 Romanian-language Anastasi-matarion, and Januarius the Protosyncellos, who in 1821 had shown him an Anasta-simatarion and a Doxastikarion, finely translated into Romanian. Mihalache’s Anastasimatarion was discovered at Mount Athos by the Byzantinologist archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur, who published it in facsimile, transcribing it in Guidonic nota-tion (vol.1, 2008; vol. 2, 2011). In contrast, Januarius’ books have been completely ignored so far. At the museum of Cernica Monastery, near Bucharest, I discovered two music manuscripts dating from early 19th century, containing yet unknown hymns and information.
The first Greek-Romanian manuscript (306 pages), no. 215, contains a full Anastasimatarion with Romanian text (the first page is torn, therefore the beginning of tone I is missing), the full service of the Lamentation at the Tomb of Lord Jesus Christ, also in Romanian, as well as several other hymns in both Greek and Romani-an language.
The second Greek-Romanian manuscript (276 pages), no. 212, is an Irmologi-on-Anthologion, including the year-round catavasias, recorded both in Greek (Peter Lampadarios’ version) and Romanian. Beside these chants, the manuscript contains many other Greek- and Romanian-language hymns, written by various authors: Peter Lampadarios the Peloponnesian, Germanos „archbishop of the new homeland”, Anastasiou, Radulos the Ungrovlachian, Balasios, Chrisaph, Mihalake Moldoveanu, Iosif of Neamt, Daniel the Protopsalti [head chanter]. They are calligraphically written in black and red ink, and are in good condition.
The chants included in these two manuscripts have a number of original ele-ments. The hymns (mainly those of ms.215) are accompanied by many notes added on the page’s margins or at its the bottom, in the same handwriting, as well as other notes added on the margin in a smaller handwriting, in black ink. Thus ms. 215, with all these additions and alternative versions provided on the margins or super-scribed, provides a new, complete melodic version of the Anastasimatarion.
The most interesting piece of information is a note on the first manuscript, no. 215, f.204v, mentioning it was written by „monk Januarius” at Neamt Monastery, in 1803. We thus have a first manuscript note documenting the work of this Januarius mentioned by Anton Pann. The same name appears in a note written by a different hand, at the end of the second manuscript, recording the fact that the manuscript had belonged to archimandrite Januarius Glavacioceanu (of Glavacioc Monastery); the same note tells us that the manuscript was lost in 1816 and recovered in 1835, when it was returned to Januarius.
The similarities between these two manuscripts (handwriting, layout, general aspect), lead to the conclusion that they were written by the same person, namely Januarius, at Neamt Monastery, between 1802-1804. This Januarius can only be the one mentioned by Anton Pann, as this name is extremely rare in Romanian monastic onomastics, especially among the authors of church music.
A novel element is the Anastasimatarion in ms. 215, a full copy of Mihalache Moldoveanu’s Anastasimatarion, mentioned by Anton Pann. Ms. 212 contains several chants ascribed to Mihalache Moldoveanu, some of them also included in ms. 215.
The Anastasimatarion written by Januarius in 1803 cannot be the one which Anton Pann saw in 1821, and which was a copy made after Mihalache Moldoveanu’s (which Anton Pann knew). The available data allow us to conclude that this Anasta-simatarion was possibly employed by Januarius, who having copied Mihalache’s versi-on, then produced his own version which Anton Pann saw in 1821.
The kinship between Januarius and Mihalache is obvious in ms. 212, which contains many of the latter’s chants, whose titles point to his life and activity: „reader Mihalache from Moldavia”, „Mihalache of Bucharest”, „the worthy of remembrance Mihalache”, „the late Mihalache”.
These appellations allow us to place the death of Mihalache Moldoveanu aro-und 1802-1804, when these manuscripts were written, most likely in 1802. Accor-ding to information recently discovered by Deacon Răzvan Stefan, he died in an earthquake (1802 saw the greatest earthquake in the history of our country).
The two manuscripts held by the museum of Cernica Monastery shed new light on two personalities of Romanian church music history, dating from the times when chants were being translated into Romanian.
The former is Mihalache Moldoveanu, ms. 215, with a full copy of his Anasta-simatarion.
The latter is Januarius the „Protosyncellos”, so far known to us only thanks to Anton Pann. Januarius is the author of one of the manuscripts; he is mentioned as a possessor of the other one, and lived between 1803-1835. His activity is important as it provided a link between the works of Mihalache and those of Hieromonk Makari-os, written in the new notation; he stands out among many other chanters who rema-in still unknown. His two manuscripts contain over 1000 pages of music, plus a possi-ble original version of the Anastasimatarion, as well as a Doxastikarion mentioned by Anton Pann. Januarius thus belongs to the spiritual filiation of Mihalache Moldovea-nu, and inquiry into his works extends the scope of music manuscripts research un-dertaken in Romania.

Pagini: 163-200