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Revista Studii Teologice

REVISTA FACULTĂŢILOR DE TEOLOGIE DIN PATRIARHIA ROMÂNĂ



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"Consideraţii asupra conceptului zoroastrian de divinitate"

Considerations about the Zoroastrian Concept of Divinity

Autor(i): Alexandru L. ARION


Summary: Considerations about the Zoroastrian Concept of Divinity
“Zoroastrian dualism” is perhaps the most famous phrase about this ancient religion of Zoroaster. And although dualism seems to represent the characteristic feature of Iranian religion in ancient and medieval times, however, there were scholars who have downplayed the importance of its dual elements, reaching to state the monotheist nature of Zoroastrianism. Dualism is characterized on the one hand in a negative way, in that the Supreme Being is neither responsible nor the author of the entire world − as in the creationist religions −, but is limited in its possession and, on the other hand, in a positive manner, by accepting the reality of evil “by nature”, equipped with demiurgic power over the world. The description of Zoroastrian religion as radical, eschatological and procosmic dualism, does not raise too many objections but for the first attribute, i.e. that of radicalism. Ahriman is not a figure of the stature of Ahura Mazda, nor seems to have the same rank. He is not a person but a principle; he is the “evil spirit”. The dilemma of the Zoroastrian concept of divinity remains standing. And that’s because in reality the gathic teaching is to be defined as dualistic in its basic inspiration: it is presented as a “dualistic monotheism” pattern, in which the divine power is limited by the presence of evil in a plane that precedes and transcends that of material life, itself strongly and dramatically conditioned.
The present paper takes into consideration the ethical vision and the cosmic form of Zoroastrian dualism and tries to harmonize the two so different standings of those who advocate either the dualism or the monotheism of this ancient religion, with the aid of the solution proposed by the Zoroastrian philosopher K.D. Irani. Thus, applying the famous C.G. Jung concepts of archetypes and archetypal world, Irani upholds that the two Spirits of Zarathustra exist at the level of this archetypal world and therefore they have both a “cosmic” and a “psychological” or “ethical” subsistence at the same time.

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Pagini: pp. 89-108